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The present document reviews recent DEP and IA combined approaches and the latest relevant improvements focusing on bacteria concentration and detection, including selectivity, sensitivity, detection time, and conductivity variation enhancements.

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Furthermore, this review analyses future trends and challenges which need to be addressed in order to successfully commercialize these platforms resulting in an adequate social return of public-funded investments. Pla-Roca, M. Design and development of a microarray processing station MPS for automated miniaturized immunoassays Biomedical Microdevices , 18, 4. The microarray processing station once installed on a commercial microarrayer allows automating the washing, and drying steps, which are often performed manually.

The substrate where the assay occurs remains on place during the microarray printing, incubation and processing steps, therefore the addressing of nL volumes of the distinct immunoassay reagents such as capture and detection antibodies and samples can be performed on the same coordinate of the substrate with a perfect alignment without requiring any additional mechanical or optical re-alignment methods.


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This allows the performance of independent immunoassays in a single microarray spot. Paoli, R. Mimicking the kidney: A key role in organ-on-chip development Micromachines , 7, 7 , Pharmaceutical drug screening and research into diseases call for significant improvement in the effectiveness of current in vitro models.

Better models would reduce the likelihood of costly failures at later drug development stages, while limiting or possibly even avoiding the use of animal models. In this regard, promising advances have recently been made by the so-called "organ-on-chip" OOC technology. By combining cell culture with microfluidics, biomedical researchers have started to develop microengineered models of the functional units of human organs.

With the capacity to mimic physiological microenvironments and vascular perfusion, OOC devices allow the reproduction of tissue- and organ-level functions. When considering drug testing, nephrotoxicity is a major cause of attrition during pre-clinical, clinical, and post-approval stages. Mimicking the functional unit of the kidney, namely the nephron, is therefore a crucial objective. Here we provide an extensive review of the studies focused on the development of a nephron-on-chip device.

Influence of controlled micro- and nanoengineered environments on stem cell Advanced Surfaces for Stem Cell Research ed. Tiwari, A. In the following chapters the influence of biological, chemical, mechanical, and physical properties of surfaces in micro and nano-scale on stem cell behavior are discussed including the mechanotransduction. Biomimetic and bioinspired approaches are highlighted for developing microenvironment of several tissues, and surface engineering applications are discussed in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and different type of biomaterials in various chapters of the book.

This book brings together innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in the research and development of Advanced Surfaces in Stem Cell Research. Well-known worldwide researchers deliberate subjects including: Extracellular matrix proteins for stem cell fate The superficial mechanical and physical properties of matrix microenvironment as stem cell fate regulator Effects of mechanotransduction on stem cell behavior Modulation of stem cells behavior through bioactive surfaces Influence of controlled micro and nanoengineered surfaces on stem cell fate Nanostructured polymeric surfaces for stem cells Laser surface modification techniques and stem cells applications Plasma polymer deposition: a versatile tool for stem cell research Application of bioreactor concept and modeling techniques in bone regeneration and augmentation treatments Substrates and surfaces for control of pluripotent stem cell fate and function.

Innovation and technology transfer of medical devices fosterd by cross disciplinary communities of practitioners International Journal of Innovation Management , 19, 6 , Commercialisation of emerging technological innovations such as medical devices can be a time-consuming and lengthy process resulting in a market entrance failure.

To tackle this general problem, major challenges are being analysed, principally focusing on the role of Communities of Practitioners CoPs in the process of effective transfer of high-value emerging technologies from academia to market. Taking a case study approach, this document describes the role of a cross-disciplinary CoP in the technology transfer process within a convergence scenario.

The case presented is a sensor array for ischemia detection developed by different practitioners from diverse organisations: university, research institution, hospital, and a scientific park. The analysis also involves the innovation ecosystem where all stakeholders are taken into account. This study contributes to a better understanding of the managerial implications of CoP fostering technology transfer and innovation, principally focused on the current need for new biomedical technologies and tools.

Surface-bound molecular gradients for the high throughput screening of cell responses Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 3, Article Chemical gradient surfaces are described as surfaces with a gradually varying composition along their length.

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Continuous chemical gradients have recently been proposed as alternative to discrete microarrays for the high throughput screening of the effects of ligand concentration in cells. Here we review some of the most recent examples in which gradients have been used to evaluate the effect of a varying ligand concentration in cell adhesion, morphology, growth and differentiation of cells, including some of our recent findings.

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They show the importance of the organization of ligands at the nanoscale, which is highlighted by abrupt changes in cell behavior at critical concentration thresholds. DNA hybridization was then detected by differential pulse voltammetry, evaluating the changes in the electrochemical properties of the polymer produced by the recognition event. A limit of detection of 0. These results are promising for the development of label-free and reagentless DNA hybridization sensors based on conducting polymeric substrates.

Biosensors can be easily prepared using any DNA sequence containing an alkyne moiety. The data presented here reveal the potential of this DNA sensor for diagnostic applications in the screening of diseases, such as "Hepatitis C", and genetic mutations. Increased migration of olfactory ensheathing cells secreting the Nogo receptor ectodomain over inhibitory substrates and lesioned spinal cord Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences , 72, 14 , Olfactory ensheathing cell OEC transplantation emerged some years ago as a promising therapeutic strategy to repair injured spinal cord.

However, inhibitory molecules are present for long periods of time in lesioned spinal cord, inhibiting both OEC migration and axonal regrowth. Two families of these molecules, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans CSPG and myelin-derived inhibitors MAIs , are able to trigger inhibitory responses in lesioned axons. Mounting evidence suggests that OEC migration is inhibited by myelin. Results indicate that engineered cells migrate longer distances than unmodified OECs over myelin or oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein OMgp -coated substrates.

In addition, they also show improved migration in lesioned spinal cord. Our results provide new insights toward the improvement of the mechanisms of action and optimization of OEC-based cell therapy for spinal cord lesion. Keywords: Olfactory ensheathing cells , Traction force microscopy , Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans , Cell migration , Nogo receptor ectodomain.

Stanton, M. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels Lab on a Chip 15, 15 , Three-dimensional 3D bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments.

The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices ECM.

This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale.

Recent studies have shown that other agents, in particular magnetite, can also play a pivotal role. Our experimental system also offers new interesting perspectives to explore key biochemical players in neurological disorders through a controlled, model system manner. Biosensors, small devices enabling selective bioanalysis because of properly assembled biological recognition molecules, represent the fortuitous results of years of interdisciplinary and complementary investigations in different fields of science.


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  • The ultimate role of a biosensor is to provide coupling between the recognition element and the analyte of interest, bringing a quantitative value of its concentrations into a complex sample matrix. They offer many advantages. Among them, portability, low cost with fast response times, and the possibility to operate in situ without the need for sample preparation are certainly the most important.

    Among biosensors, a large space is occupied by DNA biosensors. Screening genomic DNA is of fundamental importance for the development of new tools available to physicians during the clinical process. Sequencing of individual human genomes, accomplished principally by microarrays with optical detection, is complex and expensive for current clinical protocols.

    Efforts in research are focused on simplifying and reducing the cost of DNA biosensors.

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    For this purpose, other transduction techniques are under study to make more portable and affordable DNA biosensors. Compared with traditional optical detection tools, electrochemical methods allow the same sensitivity and specificity but are less expensive and less labor intensive. Scalability of electrochemical devices makes it possible to use the advantages introduced by nanosized components.

    The involvement of nanomaterials and nanostructures with custom-tailored shapes and properties is expected to rapidly boost the field of electrochemical DNA biosensors and, in general, that of next-generation sequencing technologies. Barreiros dos Santos, M. Label-free ITO-based immunosensor for the detection of very low concentrations of pathogenic bacteria Bioelectrochemistry , , Abstract Here we describe the fabrication of a highly sensitive and label-free ITO-based impedimetric immunosensor for the detection of pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli OH7.

    First, the covalent attachment of epoxysilane on the ITO surface was demonstrated by Atomic Force Microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Microcontact printing and fluorescence microscopy were used to demonstrate the specific binding of E. Finally, the detection capacity of the ITO-based immunosensor was evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The specificity of the impedimetric immunosensor was also examined.

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    Our results reveal the applicability of ITO for the development of highly sensitive and selective impedimetric immunosensors. Keywords: E. Caballero, David, Goetz, Jacky G. Fabrication of bioactive polypyrrole microelectrodes on insulating surfaces by surface-guided biocatalytical polymerization RSC Advances 5, 82 , Although promising, organic microelectronics lacks standard fabrication methods comparable to photolithography in terms of resolution.

    Here we propose a novel and easily scalable on-surface biocatalytical procedure for the fabrication of polypyrrole microelectrodes on insulating surfaces. Arrays of polypyrrole microelectrodes were obtained by surface-guided biocatalytical polymerization, achieving up to 5 [small micro]m in resolution and conductivities up to 3 S cm The mild reaction conditions provided by the biocatalytical approach permit the entrapment of bioactive compounds during polymer synthesis.

    This system is convenient for drug release purposes, as demonstrated by the controlled release of entrapped biotin through electrical stimulation. These results pave the way for the application of polypyrrole microelectrodes produced through biocatalysis in the development of implantable devices for remotely controlled tissue interactions. Rigat, L.

    Highly hydrophilic microfluidic device prototyping using a novel poly dimethylsiloxane -based polymeric mix RSC Advances 5, 10 , We present a novel methodology to create in a simple, fast and cheap way an interpenetrating polymer network biomaterial, mixing 2-hydroxyethil methacrylate and poly dimethylsiloxane , for long-lasting highly hydrophilic microfluidic device prototyping. The presented polymer could be potentially useful to develop point-of-care microfluidic diagnostic devices allowing blood displacement without exertion in microchannels while proving to have low biological analytes adhesion.

    Tong, Z. A microfluidic neuronal platform for neuron axotomy and controlled regenerative studies RSC Advances 5, 90 , Understanding the basic mechanisms of neural regeneration after injury is a pre-requisite for developing appropriate treatments.